Anti-Cardiolipin (Phospholipids) Syndrome
Anti-cardiolipin (aCL) autoimmune antibodies are a subset of antibodies which react with negatively charged phospholipids. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies are frequently observed in patients with SLE. One autoantibody, LA, is measured with a bioassay and the other autoantibody, aCL, is measured based on affinity for cardiolipin. In many cases both autoantibodies are present in a single patient and may be the same antibody in some cases.
Connective Tissue Diseases
Identification of the lupus erythematosus (LE) cell in 1948 provided physicians with a relatively specific laboratory test to aid in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). More recently, determining the presence or absence of particular autoantibodies influences the confidence with which a diagnosis is made.
ImmunoDOT Mono G, ImmunoDOT Mono M, ImmunoDOT ToRCH and ImmunoDOT ToRCH IgM (Export Only) detect CMV antibodies. Since CMV is a common cause of glandular fever or mononucleosis-like syndrome (MLS) and cannot be clinically distinguished from EBV infections, CMV is included in both ImmunoDOT Mono products.
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
Interpretations of EBV serologies, unlike standard viral serologies on paired sera, are based on the differential profiles of antibodies in a single serum against multiple antigens. EBV causes infectious mononucleosis (IM) or mononucleosis-like syndrome (MLS)
Herpes Simplex Virus
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) occurs worldwide causing several diseases. There are two herpes antigenic types, type 1 and type 2. Definitive diagnosis of genital herpes infections is fundamental to the management of patients and the development of strategies to prevent transmission to partners and neonates. There has been a world-wide increase in genital herpes during the last twenty years. Accurate diagnosis is key to treatment and prevention of genital herpes. Genital herpes can be diagnosed, treated, and most importantly, may be prevented.
The ImmunoWELL system was developed in order to reach the larger centralized laboratory in the universal microtiter immunoassay format. Microtiter format is one of the most widely used test formats with a wide variety of readers, washers, and specimen handlers either already available in the laboratory or easily obtained. Microtiter immunoassays are considered the most universal immunoassay format and have been available for over 25 years. Most microtiter systems have the same basic features and can readily be validated with assistance from GenBio.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the only known Mycoplasma species that is a primary pathogen in man. Clinical manifestations can range from asymptomatic respiratory infections to severe pneumonia. M. pneumoniae accounts for 15 to 20% of total pneumonia.
The order Rickettsiales includes a diverse group of microorganisms. The criteria used to define genera (Rickettsia and Coxiella) within the order include morphology, association with various arthropods (primarily ticks, fleas, mites or lice), obligate intracellular parasitism, and serologic relatedness. Rickettsia, Coxiella and species within those genera have adapted to existence within the various arthropods and also frequently infect humans and other vertebrates, usually as accidental hosts. The table below summarizes the various rickettsioses, their respective etiologic agents, and their s
Rubella virus infection in a healthy individual typically presents few problems. On the other hand, infection of pregnant women during the first trimester often leads to serious sequelae in the infant. Serological procedures can be very useful in ruling out a particular diagnosis. The absence of antibody to a given infectious agent can exclude that agent from consideration as a cause of the illness while a positive finding indicates past or present infection.
Autoimmune thyroid gland disorders are characterized by detection of anti-thyroid antibodies, primarily against thyroglobulin and/or microsomal thyroid antigens. Recently it has been shown that thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the protein responsible for microsomal antigenicity. In addition to chronic thyroiditis, thyroid autoantibodies may be found in other thyroid disorders. These autoantibodies may also occur in apparently normal subjects.